1. Aeschylus, Agamemnon
2. Callimachus, “The Bathing of Pallas.”
3. Luck 1985, 286.
4. Luck 1985, 299; Odyssey 20.345.
5. This name was given by the Romans, but haruspicina is thought to have ultimately originated with the Babylonians and Hittites (Luck 1985, 309).
6. Luck 1985, 312.
7. This could also be considered a type of prophetic divination depending on how one wishes to categorize it.
8. Posidonius, via Cicero, On Divination
9. Shank 1999, 592.
10. Paxson 1992, 830.
11. Greer 2000, 4.
12. Greer 2000, 4.
13. Greer 2000, 4.
14. Jolly 2002, 57.
15. Carr-Gomm and Heygate 2009, 302.
16. Little 2001.
17. Little 2001.
18. Blamires 1997, 4.
19. Graves 1947, 165.
20. Some refer to a passage from Tacitus (Germania
10) to support the argument that runes were used for divination among the early German tribes: “Augury and divination by lot no people practice more diligently. The use of the lots is simple. A little bough is lopped off a fruit-bearing tree, and cut into small pieces; these are distinguished by certain marks, and thrown carelessly and at random over a white garment. In public questions the priest of the particular state, in private the father of the family, invokes the gods, and, with his eyes towards heaven, takes up each piece three times, and finds in them a meaning according to the mark previously impressed on them. If they prove unfavorable, there is no further consultation that day about the matter; if they sanction it, the confirmation of augury is still required.” However, I tend not to necessarily support this view as there is a large chronological gap between Tacitus’ account and the first examples of runic scripts.
21. Bellows 1923, 61–2.
22. Bruce Dickins’ 1915 translations can be found here: http://www.ragweedforge.com/poems.html
23. Wikipedia 2008.
24. Luck 1985, 315.
25. Luck 1985, 3Bibliography
Bellows, H.A. 2004. Reprint. The Poetic Edda: The Mythological Poems. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. Originally published in The Poetic Edda. 1923. New York: American Scandinavian Foundation.
Blamires, S. 1997. Celtic Tree Mysteries: Practical Druid Magic and Divination. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications.
Carr-Gomm, P. and R. Heygate. 2009. The Book of English Magic. London: John Murray.
Graves, R. 1947. The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth. Amended and enlarged edition. London: Faber and Faber.
Greer, J.M. 2000. Earth Divination, Earth Magic: A Practical Guide to Geomancy. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications.
Jolly, K.L. 2002. “Controlling the Future: Popular Forms of Divination.” In Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Middle Ages, edited by B. Ankarloo, and S.Clark, 53–8. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Little, T.T. 2001. “TarotL Tarot History Information Sheet.” http://www.tarothermit.com/infosheet.htm
. Accessed 22 October 2008.
Luck, G. 1985. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. A Collection of Ancient Texts. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Paxson, D.L. 2005. Taking Up the Runes: A Complete Guide to Using Runes in Spells, Rituals, Divination, and Magic. San Francisco: Weiser Books.
Paxton, F.S. 1992. Review of The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe, by V.I.J. Flint. American Historical Review 97(3):830–1.
Shank, M.H. 1999. Review of Magic and Divination at the Courts of Burgundy and France: Text and Context of Laurens Pignon’s Contre les devineurs (1411), by J.R. Veenstra. Isis 90(3):592–3.
Wikipedia. 2008. “Dowsing.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed 23 October 2008.