Merlyn wrote:I think it got too technical. This might be miss-understood.
But if we don't fully understand it, we become easy prey. Explaining it at the scientific level causes problems, I agree.
The political end of it is just as complex.
DEVELOPING: A Texas nuclear plant is on lockdown, the Carson County Sheriff's Department said.
Several officers are at the Pantex Plant investigating.
The plant reportedly activated its Emergency Response Organization at 8 a.m. Friday in response to a possible security situation. Pantex employees have been moved to a safe location.
if you really expect to gain an overview of this broad and stunningly under published topic. We live our lives in a world that is many times more radioactive than it ever was naturally. The sources of nuclear pollution (uncontrolled radioactive material) were initially confined to bomb tests, but with the advancement of our understanding of the things we can do with radionuclides, we began to produce them by the tonne. Production means contaminated waste. What a headache.
Reactor accidents have contributed to increased background radiation. Big time. How many square miles of land do we just have to walk away from never to return before we get it? The monuments to our foolishness stand for all (or no one) to see: the apartment buildings, stores and shops as well as the houses of whole communities sitting empty. The parks and playgrounds desolate. And all of it contaminated.
But there are small accidents that occur regularly where a nuclear excursion (such a polite term) results in the release of some radioactivity as well as injury or death. What many are unaware of is the number of shipments of radioactive materials that occur by common carrier every day. This huge shipping slate means accidents can occur (have occurred) that result(ed) in the release of small quantities of radioactive elements. And that doesn't include the large sources that get loose around the countryside here.
In the breakdown of the USSR, many tonnes of nuclear materials went missing. Some frightening portions were weapons grade fissionable material. (Read nuclear bomb.) But there are many sources (source: a bulk quantity of radioactive material that was produced to act as a portable generator for radiation energy) that got away. Highly radioactive materials are unknowingly being stripped and recycled as scrap. Over there, and even over here, too.
We need to get up to speed on this stuff. All of it. And we need to spool up quick. There are two serious problems with radiation: it's seriously dangerous (and for a long time in many cases), and it's invisible. The latter makes it easier to ignore. Working around the stuff can get you dead in seconds. And you may not even know it until after the fact. Dramatic, but true.
Radiation due to uncontrolled radioactive waste and other unconfined radioactive material is a growing threat. It quietly adds its contribution to cancers and the genetic damage we as a people suffer from. Radiation is all around us. It sits in dim corners. It flows in our waters. It rides the currents of air all over the globe. It does so unfelt. Unheard. Unseen. And we sleep very well at night without thinking about it. Click, read, learn and become an activist.
A NUCLEAR weapons facility in Texas is in lockdown in response to a potential security situation.
Few details about the situation at the facility near Amarillo, Texas were immediately available. Employees were sheltered in place.
The Pantex plant is the only nuclear weapons assembly and disassembly facility in the United States.
The Carson County Sheriff's Department said Pantex is on lockdown, but would not release any information other than they have a number of sheriff's officers at the facility and are investigating, according to KFDA.
Merlyn wrote:Soot collection from coal driven electricity is becoming a reality, but only in a field testing state in the US.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state. CO2 is a trace gas being only 0.038% of the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars, which may either be consumed in respiration or used as the raw material to produce other organic compounds needed for plant growth and development. It is produced during respiration by plants, and by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend either directly or indirectly on plants for food. It is thus a major component of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter, among other chemical processes. Small amounts of carbon dioxide are emitted from volcanoes and other geothermal processes such as hot springs and geysers and by the dissolution of carbonates in crustal rocks.
As of March 2009[update], carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is at a concentration of 387 ppm by volume. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide fluctuate slightly with the change of the seasons, driven primarily by seasonal plant growth in the Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of carbon dioxide fall during the northern spring and summer as plants consume the gas, and rise during the northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas as it transmits visible light but absorbs strongly in the infrared and near-infrared.
Carbon dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1 atmospheres. At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas deposits directly to a solid at temperatures below −78 °C (−108.4 °F; 195.1 K) and the solid sublimes directly to a gas above −78 °C. In its solid state, carbon dioxide is commonly called dry ice.
CO2 is an acidic oxide: an aqueous solution turns litmus from blue to pink. It is the anhydride of carbonic acid, an acid which is unstable and is known to exist only in aqueous solution. In organisms carbonic acid production is catalysed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase.
CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3
CO2 is toxic in higher concentrations: 1% (10,000 ppm) will make some people feel drowsy. Concentrations of 7% to 10% cause dizziness, headache, visual and hearing dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen are referred to as "pure" hydrocarbons, whereas other hydrocarbons with bonded compounds or impurities of sulfur or nitrogen, are referred to as "impure", and remain somewhat erroneously referred to as hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons are referred to as consisting of a "backbone" or "skeleton" composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen and other bonded compounds, and have a functional group that generally facilitates combustion.
The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains.
Main article: Petroleum
Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons. Crude oil is processed in several stages to form desired hydrocarbons, used as fuel and in other products.Extracted hydrocarbons in a liquid form are referred to as petroleum (literally "rock oil") or mineral oil, whereas hydrocarbons in a gaseous form are referred to as natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are found in the Earth's subsurface with the tools of petroleum geology and are a significant source of fuel and raw materials for the production of organic chemicals.
The extraction of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from sedimentary basins is integral to modern energy development. Hydrocarbons are mined from tar sands and oil shale, and potentially extracted from sedimentary methane hydrates. These reserves require distillation and upgrading to produce synthetic crude and petroleum.
Oil reserves in sedimentary rocks are the source of hydrocarbons for the energy, transport and petrochemical industry.
Hydrocarbons are economically important because major fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas, and its derivatives such as plastics, paraffin, waxes, solvents and oils are hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons — along with NOx and sunlight - contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone and greenhouse gases.
The world's most famous climate change expert is at the center of a massive controversy as the leading environmental science institute he heads scrambled to explain its assertion that the Himalayan glaciers will melt completely in 25 years.
Rajendra Pachauri, head of the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and director general of the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in New Dehli, India, said this week that the U.N. body was studying how its 2007 report to the United Nations derived information that led to its famous conclusion: that the glaciers will melt by 2035.
Today, the IPCC issued a statement offering regret for the poorly vetted statements. "The Chair, Vice-Chairs, and Co-chairs of the IPCC regret the poor application of well-established IPCC procedures," the statement says, though it goes short of issuing a full retraction or reprinting the report.
The IPCC report had indicated that the total area of Himalayan glaciers would shrink from 500,000 square kilometers to 100,000 square kilometers within 25 years. The study cited a 2005 report by the World Wildlife Fund, an environmental advocacy group. The WWF study cited a 1999 article in New Scientist magazine that quoted another expert, who speculated that Himalayan glaciers could disappear within forty years.
The speculative comments were not peer reviewed, and other reports have indicated that the glaciers are not retreating abnormally.
Reports indicate that there also are concerns in the United Kingdom surrounding 10 million British pounds in funding for TERI, and questions about TERI's objectivity.
Merlyn wrote:The world's most famous climate change expert is at the center of a massive controversy as the leading environmental science institute he heads scrambled to explain its assertion that the Himalayan glaciers will melt completely in 25 years.
And I'm sure it won't be.Merlyn wrote:I am sure the money trail will be found.
Dr. Mae-Wan Ho who compiled the research, reports that within the past several years, scientists have found that oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere has been dropping, and at higher rates than just the amount that goes into the increase of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, some 2 to 4-times as much, and accelerating since 2002-2003. Simultaneously, oxygen levels in the world’s oceans have also been falling. Although the causes for the sudden acceleration in oxygen depletion are yet unclear, changes to natural ecosystems through deforestation and the expansion of agriculture could be playing a significant role.
Oxygen used to be about 20% of the atmosphere but today in some places, it is as low as 16%
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