...The importance of the Coel family is well illustrated in a statement made in 'Bonedd Gwyr y Gogledd' (Hengwrt MS. 536). 'Trychan cledyf kynuerchyn a ttrychan ysgðyt kynnðdyon a ttrychan wayð coeling pa neges bynhac yd elynt iddi yn duun. Nyt amethei (hon) honno.'
Etymology: Greek, neuter present passive participle of prolegein to say beforehand, from pro- 1pro- + legein to say -- more at LEGEND
1 : prefatory remarks or introductory observations; specifically : a formal essay or critical discussion serving to introduce and interpret an extended work <the prolegomena to a work on Shakespeare's dramatic structure -- E.T.Sehrt>
Kernos wrote:Do or did Welsh ever use the character 'ð' or eth for 'dd'?
Wikipedia wrote:In 1928 a committee chaired by Sir John Morris-Jones standardised the orthography of modern Welsh.
In 1987, a committee chaired by Professor Stephen J. Williams made further small changes. The conventions established by these committees are not adhered to by all modern writers.
Wikipedia wrote:The earliest samples of written Welsh date from the 6th century and are in the Latin alphabet (see Old Welsh). The orthography differs from that of modern Welsh particularly in the use of p, t and c to represent the voiced plosives /b, d, ɡ/ in the middle and at the end of words. Similarly, the voiced fricatives /v, ð/ were written with b and d.
By the Middle Welsh period, this had given way to much variability: although b, d and g were now used to represent /b, d, ɡ/, these sounds were also often written as in Old Welsh, while /v/ could be denoted by u, v, f or w. In earlier manuscripts, moreover, fricatives were often not distinguished from plosives (e.g. t for /θ/, the sound now written with th). The grapheme k was also used more commonly than in the modern alphabet, particularly before front vowels. The disuse of this letter is at least partly due to the publication of William Morgan's Welsh Bible, whose English printers, with type letter frequencies set for English and Latin, did not have enough k letters in their type cases to spell every /k/ sound as k, so the order went "C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth"; this was not liked at the time, but has become standard usage.
The ð is also used by some in written Welsh to represent the letter 'dd' (the voiced dental fricative).
AC vn or seith Angel oeð ar seith phiol gantho y ðoeth, ac ymchwedleyoeð a mi, dan ðwedyd wrthyf, Dyred [-: ‡ Debre, Degle] : mi ðangosaf ytti ðamnedigeth y bytten * vawr [-: [no gloss]] ysydd yn eistedd ar lawer o ddyfroedd,
Corwen wrote:Personally I miss the letter 'thorn', especially as I live in the land of 'Ye Olde Tea Shoppe' which people insist on pronouncing incorrectly not realising the 'y' is standing in for 'Þ'!
Dysgwr wrote:He then goes on to say "Lhuyd, (1707). used χ for ch, λ for ll, and ꝺ for dd. The last has survived in the form ẟ in ordinary handwriting, but manuscript ẟ is printed dd." Unfortunately the symbol ꝺ doesnt let me see if he actually means ð or not
treegod wrote:Before that written standards could vary (as has been explained), which might have included <ð>, though perhaps due to the whims of an individual than traditional writing.
Dysgwr wrote:That leads me to believe it was not a widespread phenomenon but more an attempt by individuals at stantardising the language. Its would be interesting to know why these people chose ð when old english had, apparently, died out by the end of the 12th century. It is, also, likely that these people were well educated and would thus have had access to various sources and knowledge enough to make the connections between the various languages with which they were familiar.
Dysgwr wrote:I guess we've come to the same conclusion
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